Los Angeles, CA, UNITED STATES
Department of Specialized Programs in Professional Psychology
Ph.D., Counseling Psychology
M.A. and Ed.M., Counseling Psychology
Dr. Estrada’s research interests include masculinity and multicultural education. He currently leads a research team on positive masculinity and psychological health. Dr. Estrada is also active in studying the role of affect in a multicultural context. He incorporates stimulus-response technology to study questions related to multicultural education and counseling.
Research Methodology & Statistics
Culturally Responsive Counseling with Individuals
Estrada, F., Lavadenz, M., Paynter, M., Ruiz, R.
The passage of California Assembly Bill 815 (Brownley, Chapter 618, Statutes of 2011) established in 2012 the State Seal of Biliteracy-an officical marker on graduating seniors' high school diplomas, as evidence of high school graduates' attainment of a high level of proficiency in speaking, reading, and writing one or more languages, in addition to English.view more
Estrada, F., & Jimenez, P.
Latino men, part of the nation’s largest and fastest-growing minority group, stand to benefit from new knowledge related to factors that positively influence college persistence. In this study, the investigators examined whether machismo—a multidimensional and gendered social construct—was directly and indirectly associated with three outcomes associated with postsecondary success: connectedness at school, ethnic identity, and support-seeking behavior. Hierarchical moderated regression analysis on data from 140 mainly Mexican American undergraduates partially supported the hypotheses. Implications for college counselors and program coordinators are discussed, along with limitations of the study and areas for future scholarship.view more
An understudied topic is the social experiences of college Latinos. In this study, six men shared their experience of brotherhood or hermandad. Individual interviews yielded qualitative data that were subjected to inductive coding resulting in seven descriptive themes conveying the essence of brotherhood. The findings and implications are discussed in light of extant literature. Study limitations precede discussion on future scholarship that is focused on the postsecondary success of a highly underrepresented student population...view more
Using a scenario-based analogue experiment embedded within an online survey, 174 masters-level counseling students located at a university on the Southwest Coast of the United States provided data to test the notion that the teaching alliance—a framework for enhancing the quality of the student-instructor relationship—is (a) important in multicultural counseling course education, and (b) linked to relevant outcomes. Results offer preliminary evidence of pedagogical utility for the alliance model within a multicultural course context...view more
While the interpersonal relationship between the student and teacher is important for learning, the specific quality of the student-teacher relationship in higher education and its effects on learning remains understudied. Striving to enliven this area of study is the concept of the teaching alliance as understood through Jesuit tradition. The alliance defines the quality of the student-teacher relationship as the degree of shared agreement over the goals and tasks of a course, as well as the presence of a positive interpersonal bond. Through an Ignatian lens, this framework brings into focus themes in teaching that can bolster learning. This article offers an illustrative example in a graduate-level course for additional reflection upon the practical application of the alliance framework. It ends with pedagogical considerations and an agenda for further scholarship...view more
This article explores the idea of the teaching alliance as a framework to help instructors of multicultural counseling courses advance student learning by attending to and strengthening the student-instructor relationship. To this end, and drawing on extant literature, two questions are conceptually addressed: (1) what relational qualities comprise the teaching alliance in a graduate-level multicultural class? and (2) what instructional strategies might help strengthen that alliance? The article concludes with a discussion of teaching considerations and directions for future research...view more
Counselors are learning ways to promote well-being among Latinas/os. This study tested the hypothesis that caballerismo, a prosocial form of masculinity, would predict subjective well-being among a sample of predominantly Mexican/Mexican American men. The moderating role of religious involvement was also tested and hypothesized as having a bolstering effect. Results supported the main hypotheses. Implications are discussed as they concern counseling, training, and future research...view more
Machismo continues to be a defining aspect of Mexican American men that informs a wide array of psychological and behavioral dimensions. Although strides have been made in this area of research, understanding of the role of this construct in the lives of gay men remains incomplete. Our purpose in this study was to gain a deeper understanding of machismo using a sample of Mexican American gay men. This study examined for the first time whether a 2-factor model of machismo previously validated with heterosexual, Mexican American men generalized to a sample of 152 gay men of similar ethnic background. Relations between machismo, sexual risk, and internalized homophobia were also explored. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the 2-factor model with the current sample. Results also indicated machismo as predicting internalized homophobia and as an index of risky sex. Limitations are presented and implications are discussed...view more
Sexual minority students such as those identifying as lesbian, gay, or bisexual, as well as those identifying with emerging self-labels (e.g., queer) face a host of risk factors in high school that can potentially compromise educational excellence, particularly in rigorous academic disciplines. The current study advances the area of diversity within science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education by empirically exploring the question: Is there a gap in STEM education participation based on sexual minority status? After reviewing the relevant research, we employed hierarchical linear modeling to explore advanced math and science coursetaking patterns among a nationally representative sample of students from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Results of this initial exploratory study suggest that advanced math and science course-taking does not vary significantly based on sexual minority status once a host of individual and school factors are included. The null findings advance the discussion of equity and excellence in STEM education as it relates to vulnerable populations. The article ends with a discussion of limitations and directions for future research...view more